Задания по грамматике и лексике

1

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18 Children and adults all over the world know and love Jacob and
Wilhelm Grimm. However, among the readers they are ________GOOD
known as the Brothers Grimm.
19 Thanks to ________ THIS two German scholars and authors who collected
folklore, old fairy tales like Cinderella and Snow White became
popular all over the world.
20 The brothers were born in the late eighteenth century in the
town of Hanau. Sadly,________THEY father, who was a magistrate, died
when the brothers were still young.
21 Soon after that the family________ FALL into poverty. This event
affected the brothers for many years.
22 At university, Jacob and Wilhelm ________ STUDY philology and began
collecting folk tales.
23 The brothers believed that old folk ________ STORY represented a pure
form of national literature and culture. Popularizing the collected
folklore tales has become their passion.
24 Between 1812 and 1857, their collection of tales ________ PUBLISH many
times, and grew from 86 stories to 200.
25 'The popularity of the Grhnu1 tales ________ CONTINUE today.
26 However, some psychologists think some of the tales are too
violent for young ________ CHILD.


27 The medication commonly known as aspirin is one of the most
________ FREQUENT taken medications in the world today.
28 The first person who created acetylsalicylic acid formula was
a ________FRANCE chemist named Charles Frederic Gerhardt.
29 Gerhardt's product worked but he had no desire to market it
and abandoned his ________DISCOVER.
30 Later the key formula for aspirin was developed by Felix
Hoffman, a chemist with the ________ GERMANY company Bayer, in 1897.
31 Aspirin is used to treat a number of ________ ILL including fever
and every day aches and pains.
33 Some doctors suggest taking one aspirin a day to prevent
heart attacks and strokes. There are also some less ________ TRADITION
uses. A good trick is to add crushed aspirin to the water in a vase
to help flowers stay fresh longer.


2

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18 The helicopter can take off and land vertically, it can hover -
or hang in space, and it can fly forwards . It can be called one of
the most ________ AMAZE human inventions.
19 Throughout history many great inventors ________ EXPERIMENT
with the idea of the helicopter.
20 Among ________THEY was Leonardo da Vinci, who created a design
for an "aerial screw."
21 As technical knowledge advanced, scientists such as Russia's
Mikhail Lomonosov explored the idea of vertical lift. In 1878, an
Italian scientist________ BUILD an unmanned vehicle that managed to
stay in the air for 20 seconds.
22 In the ________ TWENTY century, many inventors all around the world
worked on developing the helicopter.
23 A turning point came in 1936 when Heinrich Focke ________ FLY
the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 helicopter for the first time.
24 ________ HE helicopter broke all world records for speed, distance
and control.
25 In the United States, Russian-born engineer Igor Sikorsky
decided to use a single rotor design for his helicopter. Originally,
helicopters ________ USE for military purposes.
26 Today they are also used to save ________ LIFE,
transporting accident victims to the hospital and rescuing people at sea.


27 People remember many good and bad events. One of such
________ MEMORY events happened on the night of 15 May 1855.
28 It was the Great Gold ________ROB. Over 90 kg of gold was
stolen while it was being transported by train between London and Paris.
29 Police forces in Britain and France made a careful ________INVESTIGATE.
30 ________ FINAL four men were named as the thieves.
31 The plot required extensive ________ PREPARE involving
duplicate keys, lead weights, and precise timing.
33 However the search seemed ________ END. The criminals were
identified only after one of them was imprisoned for another
crime. While the robbery is not the biggest in history, it is still
one of the most famous.


3

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18 Nobel Prize is one of the most prestigious awards in many fields
of human knowledge and literature. The 2012 Nobel Prize for
Literature ________ AWARD to Chinese author Mo Yan.
19 Mo Yan is the ________ ONE Chinese citizen to win the Literature
prize.
20 Gao Xingjian won the prize in 2000, but by then he ________BECOME
a French citizen.
21 Mo Yan was born in 1955 in rural China in the family of poor________ FARM.
22 Because of the Cultural Revolution, he ________ FORCE to leave school
when he was only 12.
23 He ________ GO to work in the fields, and finished his education in
the army. After completing a master's degree in Literature, he
started his writing career.
24 Mo Yan writes historical novels about the Chinese peasantry
and________ THEY struggle to survive life in the countryside.
25 To his readers, Mo Yan's style is immediately recognizable. He
blends fantasy, realism and absurdism. His stories have ________ HUNDRED
of characters.
26 Many of his stories are influenced by the fairy tales he ________ HEAR
when he was a child.


27 Today if you're in the mood for ice cream, you can find it in
almost any grocery store. But before the ________ INVENT
refrigerator, it was considered a luxury.
28 For many years, people made ice cream________EXCLUSIVE
by hand.
29 The key ingredients - milk and sugar, cream and eggs - were
placed in a bowl that was then put in a larger ________CONTAIN
with salt and ice.
30 Then the ingredients had to be stirred. Before cooling, ice had to
be cut from lakes and ponds and stored in the ground. Ice
harvesting was a very________ PROFIT business in areas that
had a lot of ice.
31 Merchants shipped ice all around the world. In 1926, the
modern ________ PRODUCE was invented, and the mass
production of ice
cream began.
33 It was simply ________ POSSIBLE before that.


4

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18 Are you fond of diving? Then you must know the history of the
________ ONE commercially successful scuba sets.
19 They ________ DEVELOP in the 1940s by Emile Gagnan and
Jacques-Yves Cousteau.
20 The original name for this unique swimming equipment was
Aqua-Lung, but it soon became ________KNOW as "scuba" - an acronym
for "self-contained underwater breathing apparatus".
21 When using scuba gear, a swimmer________ BREATHE compressed air
carried in tanks on his back. Scuba diving is both a popular
recreational sport, and a highly skilled profession. Many people
take scuba diving holidays in the Caribbean, where the sea is warm
and very clear, and it's easy to see colorful corals and marine life.
22 Deep-sea divers have special skills that make it possible ________ EXPLORE
old shipwrecks and hunt for treasure.
23 The SS Andrea Doria is one of the ________ FAMOUS shipwreck dive
sites.
24 Before it sunk in 1956, the Andrea Doria________ BE a luxury
cruise ship.
25 The divers risk ________ THEY lives trying to find valuable treasures
deep on the ocean floor.
26 Only highly trained divers ________ QUALIFY to search the Andrea Doria.


27 We live in the world of digital devices. But even in today's
________ TECHNOLOGY society, we still need pencils.
28 Children all around the world learn to write using pencils,
whether learning the Russian alphabet or________CHINA
characters.
29 The history of the pencil began in 1564, when a large deposit of
graphite, the key material in pencils, was discovered in Barrowdale,
England. This new material was very _______USE for writing as
it made a dark mark.
30 At the same time it had a serious________ ADVANTAGE
as it made people's fingers dirty. Then someone thought to cut the graphite
into sticks and wrap it in string or animal skin.
31 In 1565 someone put the graphite into a ________ WOOD tube, and
the first pencil was born.
33 Today this ________ REMARK tool comes in multiple shapes and sizes,
colors and styles.


5

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18 Victor Hugo was a French writer, who is best-known today for
his novels Les Miserables and Notre-Dame de Paris. As a young
man, Hugo was loyal to the royal government, but ________ LATE
in life he became a passionate supporter of the republican movement.
19 This change in his political beliefs ________ REFLECT in
his work.
20 Hugo's father was a military officer, and the family ________MOVE
frequently. These travels made a strong impression on the young
Victor.
21 Hugo married his childhood sweetheart, against his________ MOTHER
wishes, and they had several children together. During the political unrest
in France from 1850 to 1873, Hugo lived outside of France, but he
eventually returned.
22 While Hugo is most famous for his novels, he was also a
successful poet. His first collection of poems ________ PUBLISH
in 1822, when he was 20.
23 The success of his ________ ONE novel, Notre-Dame de Paris was
really great.
24 It even forced the City of Paris________ RESTORE the long-neglected
cathedral.
25 Notre-Dame de Paris was attracting thousands of tourists who
________ READ the popular novel.
26 It ________ TAKE over 17 years for Hugo to complete Les
Miserables, but when it appeared in stores, it was sold out within
hours.


27 The next time you buy something made from rubber -
waterproof boots, car tires - try to figure out if synthetic or
natural rubber was used. Natural rubber is extracted from rubber
trees. Rubber trees originated on the South American continent,
and ________ EUROPE explorers brought them to Asia in the 19th
century.
28 Today, the________MAJOR of natural rubber comes from three
countries: Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
29 Commercial rubber trees _______USUAL grow in large
plantations, and a single rubber tree will produce rubber for about
25 years.
30 Rubber trees require warm temperatures, high________ HUMID,
and plenty of sunshine.
31 Another name for rubber is latex. ________ FORTUNATE , some
people are allergic to latex.
33 That's why they should be very ________ CARE never to use any
rubber products.