ЕГЭ за 30 дней

Экспресс курс предназанчен для того, чтобы помочь учащимся быстро и эффективно подготовиться к итоговой аттестации по английскому языку. Задания составлены с учетом всех требований ЕГЭ. Материал разбит на 30 уроков (дней), каждый из которых включает разделы по изучению грамматики, лексики, а также по развитию специальных умений в аудировании, чтении или письме. Задания расположены по принципу нарастания сложности от заданий базового уровня до заданий высокого уровня.

Урок 1

ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ПАДЕЖ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ

Притяжательный падеж образуется путем прибавления апострофа (’) и оконча-ния ‘s’ к существительным в единственном числе, а также к существительным во множественном числе, которые не оканчиваются на ‘s’:
Jack’s book, St. James’s park, the doctor’s advice, the children’s toys
К существительным во множественном числе, которые оканчиваются на s, при-бавляется только апостроф (’):
the girls’ books, the lawyers’ clients
Неодушевленные существительные, как правило, передают значение принадлежности с помощью предлога of:
the first chapter of the novel, the cost of living.
Однако есть некоторые группы неодушевленных существительных, которые употребляются в притяжательном падеже:
а) названия стран, городов, месяцев, дней недели Russia’s economy, Moscow’s skyline, February’s birthstone, Sunday’s paper
б) меры времени и расстояния yesterday’s newspaper, a day’s wait, a fortnight’s holiday, two kilometres’ distance
в) названия магазинов, салонов, ресторанов the butcher’s, the hairdresser’s, McDonald’s restaurant
г) слова sun, moon, Earth, world, country, city, town, company the world’s climate, the country’s economy, the company’s office
Задание
Поставьте существительные в притяжательный падеж.
Пример: the book of a girl — a girl’s book
1. the car of my father
2. the room of his sisters
3. the books of the children
4. the restaurant of Mr. Brigg
5. the names of my brothers
6. the lives of the people
7. The clothes of those women 3. the books of the children
8. the hat of the policeman 4. the restaurant of Mr. Brigg
9. the policy of Finland 5. the names of my brothers
10. the oldest car in the world


МНОЖЕСТВЕННОЕ ЧИСЛО СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ

Существительные могут быть как исчисляемыми (их можно посчитать), так и не-исчисляемыми (их посчитать нельзя). Неисчисляемые существительные не употребляются с неопределенным артиклем и имеют только форму единственного или только форму множественного числа. Различают следующие группы неисчисляемых существительных:
ГруппаПримеры существительныхПримечание
Жидкостиblood, tea, coffee, milk, etcСогласуются с глаголом в единственном числе
Продукты питанияbread, butter, flour, food, fish (как продукт пита-ния), meat, sugar, rice, salt, etc
Материалыcoal, glass, ice, iron, sand, etc
Газыair, oxygen, smoke, etc
Явления природыdarkness, hail, heat, rain, snow, humidity, etc
Учебные предметыChemistry, Economics, Literature, Mathematics, Physics, etc
ЯзыкиChinese, English, French, etc
Игрыbilliards, chess, golf, soccer, tennis, etc
Болезниflu, measles, mumps, etc
Абстрактные существительныеaccommodation, advice, anger, applause, assistance, behaviour, business, chaos, countryside, courage, damage, dirt, education, evidence, housework, homework, information, intelligence, knowledge, luck, music, news, peace, progress, seaside, shopping, traffic, trouble, truth, wealth, work, etc
Собирательные существительныеbaggage, cutlery, furniture, jewellery, luggage, machinery, money, rubbish, stationery, time, hair, etc
Парные существительныеgarments (pyjamas, trousers etc), tools (scissors etc), instruments (binoculars, compasses, spectacles, etc)Согласуются с глаголом во множественном числе
Неисчисляемые существительные, имеющие форму только множественного числаarms, ashes, barracks, clothes, congratulations, earnings, (good) looks, outskirts, people, police, premises, riches, stairs, surroundings, wages, etc
Групповые существительныеarmy, audience, class, club, committee, company, council, crew, crowd, headquarters, family, jury, government, press, public, staff, team, etc
С выражениями времени, расстояния или денег, рассматриваемыми как «одно целое», используется глагол в единственном числе:
Three miles is a long way to go. Two years is long to wait. Nine thousand pounds is too much to spend on.
Исчисляемые существительные имеют форму как единственного, так и множественного числа. Многие неисчисляемые существительные можно сделать исчисляемыми, добавив к ним разделительное слово, например:
a piece of paper / cake / advice / information / furniture; a slice / loaf of bread; a piece of news, etc.
Исчисляемые существительные образуют множественное число путем прибавления окончания:
-s к большинству существительных dogs, boys, months
к существительным, оканчивающимся на гласную + ‘o’ или на двойную ‘o’ radios, videos, zoos
к сокращениям, оканчивающимся на ‘o’ photos, autos, kilos, memos
к названиям музыкальных инструментов, оканчивающимся на ‘o’ pianos, cellos, banjos
к именам собственным Eskimos
-es к остальным существительным, оканчивающимся на -o tomatoes, potatoes, heroes, echoes, negroes к существительным, оканчивающимся на -s, ss, x, ch, sh foxes, dresses, churches, buses, dishes
-ies к существительным, оканчивающимся на согласную + y (y меняется на i + es) cities, countries, ladies, flies, babies, nannies
-ves к существительным, оканчивающимся на -f/-fe (f/fe меняется на v +es) lives, leaves, wolves, wives, scarves, halves
Но: chiefs, roofs, proofs, cliffs, safes, beliefs, handkerchiefs
Исключения:
Особые формы множественного числа существительных: man — men, woman — women, child — children, ox — oxen, foot — feet, tooth - teeth, goose - geese, louse - lice, mouse - mice, sheep — sheep, deer — deer, trout — trout, swine — swine, salmon — salmon, spacecraft — spacecraft, means — means, species — species, series — series, fish — fish/fishes, fruit — fruit/fruits
Составные существительные образуют множественное число путем прибавления окончания -s/-es
ко второму существительному, если составное существительное состоит из двух существительных (shopkeeper — shopkeepers) или образу-ют множественное число как соответствующие им исключения (seaman — seamen, businesswoman — businesswomen)
к существительному, если составное существительное состоит из прилагательного и существительного (frying pan — frying pans)
к первому существительному, если составное существительное состо-ит из двух существительных, соединенных предлогом (brother-in-law - brothers-in-law)
Задание:
Напишите множественное число следующих существительных.
1. church 2. difficulty 3. mouse 4. month 5. child 6. roof 8. woman 9. deer 10. leaf 11. goose 12. potato 13. Foot 14. dress 15. radio 16. box 17. fish 18. wolf 19. country 20. tooth 21. hero
Напишите множественное число следующих существительных.
1. bench 2. celebrity 3. louse 4. bath 5. woman 6. safe 7. play 8. scarf 9. belief 10. sheep 11. half 12. tomato 13. means 14. photo 15. Englishman 16. swine 17. activity 18. thief
Вставьте is или are
1. Your trousers______ in the wardrobe. 2. Where______his scissors? 3. There______a lecture on history today. 4. The shopping______heavy. 5. Where______my gloves? 6. This information______correct. 7. His hair______brown. 8. My socks______in the drawer. 9. Our furniture______very cheap. 10. His accommodation______luxurious. 11. Evidence______needed before the trial can continue. 12. The news______very exciting. 13. Mumps______a common illness among children. 14. My glasses______on the table. 15. Chinese______difficult to learn. 16. Where______the kitchen scales? 17. Billiards______a popular game. 18. His work______very interesting. 19. People______starving in some countries. 20. Education______the key to his success.
Выберите правильную форму глагола.
1. The stairs (was/were) very steep. 2. Economics (is/are) a very interesting subject. 3. His luck (was/were) a surprise for us. 4. Fish (is/are) my favourite food. 5. Step aerobics (have/has) recently taken off. 6. His advice ( was/were) really useful. 7. Where (is/are) my glasses? I can’t see anything. 8. This information (was/were) very strange. 9. There (is/are) toast on the dish. 10. Where (was/were) your belongings? 11. Athletics (is/are) very popular nowadays. 12. Radio news (give/gives) us less information than television news. 13. Fast food (makes/make) people fat. 14. Her knowledge of English (is/are) excellent. 15. The money we have (is/are) enough to buy a new flat. 16. The police (is/are) collecting evidence to convict him. 17. Measles (is/are) rather dangerous for adults. 18. Most people (en joy/enjoys) travelling nowadays. 19. The government (is/are) passing new laws. 20. His good looks ( help/helps) him in any situation.
Прочитайте текст и преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. За-полните пропуски полученными словами.
One of the most striking (1)______ CHANGE in family structure over the last twenty years has been the increase of single parent (2)______ FAMILY. Due to high divorce (3)______ RATE and adults choosing not to marry, this is currently the fastest growing family form in most developed (4)______ COUNTRY. More than half of all youngsters will spend some of the (5)______ LIFE in a single-parent family. Currently, 88 percent of these households are headed by (6) ____ WOMAN. Research shows that (7)____ CHILD living with a single, paren __ tend to be more active and have ___ more (8)______ DUTY such as shopping, cooking or washing the (9)______DISH. One possible reason is that they are usually more involved in decisionmaking (10)______ ACTIVITY.
СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ — СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫЕ
Образуйте существительные от следующих слов и разбейте их по категориям.
Member, define, help, assist, appreciate, visit, impress, distant, win, hostile, censor, resolve, differ, law, possible, revise, perform, begin, relate, persist, stable, explain, prefer, collide, act, companion, active, sail, innocent, important, supervise, survive, honest, leader, invade, allow, research, intelligent, edit.
Суффикс -er -or -sion -tion -ship -ance -ence -ty/-ity
Существительные membership
ОпределениеСуществительное
1. A person who takes photographs.
2. The relationship you have with your friend.
3. A person who drives a car.
4. The action of persuading someone.
5. Violent action or behaviour.
6. A person who writes books.
7. The act of dividing something.
8. Something people do when they are active.
9. Someone who visits museums and galleries.
10. The quality of being important.
Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.
Families are the (1)_____ FOUND of society. There are many places to gather (2)_____ INFORM on family and a (3)______VARY of forms that it , exists in. The family form is merely the physical makeup of the family members in (4)______RELATION to each other without respect to roles and function. Most of the time when a person thinks of the (5)______ DEFINE of a family, the image of a mother, father and children is what comes into the mind. That is actually a nuclear family. Extended family is when a nuclear family or single-parent family lives with any extended family members. In these families grandparents often take a primary (6)______ RESPONSIBLE for child care, particularly when both parents work. There is a great (7)_____DIFFER in lifestyle and traditions between these two main types.
Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.
The increasing use of public high school exit exams is one (1)_____MANIFESTATE of the current movement in U.S. public schooling toward (2)_____ ACCOUNTABLE and more explicit standards of (3)______INSTRUCT.
Raising the bar for the standards of (4)______ GRADUATE creates incentives both for students to work harder in school and for (5)______TEACH to increase their (6)_____ASSISTANCE to low-achieving students.
Such incentives should most strongly affect the (7)______ MOTIVATE of students who fail an exit exam the first time they take the test and increase their (8)______PERSIST. However, raising standards makes tests more challenging and increases the (9)______ POSSIBLE of failing a test. That is why no official (10)______DECIDE have yet been made about changes to the existing requirements.
ЧТЕНИЕ С ПОНИМАНИЕМ ОСНОВНОГО СОДЕРЖАНИЯ (задание В2)
Полезные советы: Это задание не требует внимательного вдумчивого чтения. Используйте приемы просмотрового и поискового чтения. Прочитайте быстро текст, чтобы понять основное содержание. Не волнуйтесь, если вы не знаете некоторых слов. Возможно, они не играют важной роли в определении общего смысла текста. Прочитав отрывок, определите его основную идею, а затем подберите заголовок, который ближе всего её отражает. Помните, что в заголовке не обязательно будут те слова, которые встречаются в тексте. Скорее всего, основная мысль будет выражена другими словами. Не забудьте, что есть лишний заголовок. После того, как вы подобрали заго-ловки ко всем текстам, убедитесь, что оставшийся заголовок не подходит ни к одному отрывку.
Прочитайте рекомендации ученых как построить счастливую семью. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1—8 и текстами A—G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Head-and-heart Listening 2. Clear Responsibilities
3. Family Discussions 4. Flexibility
5. Balanced Communication 6. Caring and Appreciation
7. Family Roots 8. Encouragement
A. Building a successful family is like building a home. Both need a plan. A successful family based on unity and love takes careful planning, but it’s worth every moment. The best way to be organized as a family is to talk about family matters. By doing this, families enjoy a special closeness and stability. Choosing to spend time with your family sends a message more powerful than words. Memories made together during this time will bond and sustain your family through the years.
B. Family traditions promote feelings of warmth and unity. Trace your family tree and collect all the photographs of your ancestors that you can find. Public libraries and bookstores have books on genealogy for you to get you started. Compile a family oral history. Ask older relatives to talk about their parents and childhood and record their comments. Then transcribe the tapes and send copies to aunts and uncles, grandparents and cousins. These stories contain a glimpse of the past that would be lost otherwise.
C. How much time should families spend together? That varies from family to family. Families with young children usually spend most of their time together because young children need a great deal of physical care and guidance. Families with teenagers may spend less time together because teens naturally want to spend more time with their friends. Healthy families keep a good balance between “too much” and “not enough” time together. They spend enough time to satisfy all family members.
D. Strong families take time to talk to one another. They share their hopes and dreams, feelings and concerns. This involves listening beyond words to the meanings and feelings attached to them. A good listener can better understand and respond to the needs and concerns of others. It means laying aside personal views and really trying to understand the other person’s point of view. Even if you don’t agree with their opinion, you can make sure you understand them before responding.
E. Members of successful families feel they really belong in their family. Family members feel accepted for what they are and promote one another’s self-esteem. They celebrate their victories and help each other learn from mistakes. Sometimes life gets rough and we need all the support we can get. A cheering word from a family member can really come in handy. Put the words on sticky notes and stick them in places where they can be easily found.
F. Strong families develop predictable routines, roles, and rules that govern everyday life and provide for continuity and stability. Reasonably stable patterns empower a family to deal with the many challenges inevitable in family life; without such patterns, chaos would result. At the same time, strong families adapt relationships and family rules when needs arise. The varied circumstances of family life may necessitate individual adaptation. Since no family knows what tomorrow will bring, being adaptive is a good trait for family members to develop.
G. Recent studies affirm the importance of love in families. Research shows that expressions of affection towards children reduce problem behaviours and enhance children’s development. Strong families notice and share positive aspects of each member. They notice the talents, skills and achievements, special qualities, and characteristics that make the other person unique. They find ways to be positive even when another family member makes a mistake and make a conscious effort to develop closeness and show love at home.
ABCDEFG
Выпишите из текста синонимы к следующим словам и словосочетаниям.
1. maintain 2. encourage 3. differs 4. to suit 5. react 6. encouraging 7. difficulties 8. change gradually 9. conditions 10. improve
Прочитайте короткие тексты о спорте и спортсменах. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1 — 8 и текстами A — G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Various Applications 5. A Sport or a Hobby?
2. Changing Styles 6. Unexpected Victory
3. Benefits of Sport 7. Breaking World Record
4. Choosing Proper Equipment 8. Challenging Sport
A. Playing sports is a great way to make exercise fun and help children to develop healthy habits. Sports can also help children improve their agility, balance, and coordination. Participating in sports can help build a child’s self-esteem. Studies show that children who play sports work harder in the classroom. Children also learn problem-solving skills and time management skills when they are part of a team.
B. Late last week BMX legend, Kevin Robinson, made history by flying higher than any human has ever gone on a BMX bike as part of Red Bull Experiment in New York City! Thousands of fans and spectators were on-site to catch all the action. This awesome feat had been a lifelong dream of Kevin’s which until now no one else has ever been able to pull off!
C. American tennis star Venus Williams has lost her place at the Madrid Open when she was beaten in the second-round part of the contest by Russian teenager Alisa Kley-banova. Williams is the current world number three and her 19-year-old opponent was unseeded so the defeat came as a big shock. Williams said she thought Kleybanova had won “by just being aggressive from both sides of the court.”
D. Skateboarding traces its roots to the seventies but it really reached the peak of its popularity in the mid-eighties to the present when major skateboard manufacturers propelled it to new heights. First, they started with half-pipe and vert ramp skateboarding. As the years went by, the focus shifted to street skateboarding, which brought about a few changes in deck shape and wheel size.
E. While the majority of scuba diving is recreation, there are those that do it for a living as well. Scientific exploration and research is another area with a lot of scuba diving demand. They spend a lot of time in the water watching sea life cycles, and how microorganisms fit the whole underwater environment. There are also others that work in constructing underwater platforms that are often used for research as well as offshore oil.
F. Surfing is a sport which is undertaken by almost every individual in the U.S. This term is often referred to as a surface water sport in which the person surfing is carried along the face of a breaking ocean wave standing on a surfboard. Surfboards can also be used on rivers on standing waves. Some people practise this as a hobby while others become professional surfers.
G. If you’re interested in snowboarding, you will need to find out which length and width board is best for you. Both of these factors are critical to the success of snowboarding. Be aware that shorter boards are easier to manoeuvre, therefore making them great if you are just learning to snowboard. When it comes to width, it is important to consider foot size when choosing the width of a board.

ABCDEFG
Выпишите из текста синонимы к следующим словам и словосочетаниям.
1. ability to move quickly and easily 6. moved to
2. viewers of a sports event 7. leisure
3. overwhelming 8. as a job
4. failure to win 9. need or require
5. origins 10. significant
ПРОВЕРЬ СЕБЯ
1.1. 1. my father’s car; 2. his sisters’ room; 3. the children’s books; 4. Mr. Brigg’s restaurant; 5. my brothers’ names; 6. the people’s lives; 7. those women’s clothes; 8. the policeman’s hat; 9. Finland’s policy; 10. the world’s oldest car
2.1. 1. churches; 2. difficulties; 3. mice; 4. month; 5. children; 6. roofs; 7. boys; 8. women; 9. deer; 10. leaves; 11. geese; 12. potatoes; 13. feet; 14. dresses; 15. radios; 16. oxen; 17. fish/fishes; 18. wolves; 19. countries; 20. teeth;
2.2. 1. benches; 2. celebrities; 3. lice; 4. baths; 5. women; 6. safes; 7. plays; 8. scarves; 9. beliefs; 10. sheep; 11. halves; 12. tomatoes; 13. means; 14. photos; 15. Englishmen; 16. swine; 17. activities; 18. thieves; 19. kilos; 20. parties; 21. echoes
2.3. 1. are; 2. are; 3. is; 4. is; 5. are; 6. is; 7. is; 8. are; 9. is; 10. is; 11. is; 12. is; 13. is; 14. are; 15. is; 16. are; 17. is; 18. is; 19. are; 20. is
2.4. 1. were; 2. is; 3. was; 4. is; 5. has; 6. was; 7. are; 8. was; 9. is; 10. were; 11. is; 12. gives; 13. makes; 14. is; 15. is; 16. are; 17. is; 18. enjoy; 19. is; 20. help
2.5. 1. changes; 2. families; 3. rates; 4. countries; 5. lives; 6. women; 7. children; 8. duties; 9. dishes; 10. activities
3.1. -er — helper, winner, lawyer, beginner, researcher, performer, invader
-or — visitor, actor, sailor, survivor, editor, supervisor
-sion — impression, revision, collision, supervision, invasion
-tion — definition, appreciation, resolution, relation, explanation, action, edition
-ship — membership, censorship, relationship, companionship, leadership
-ance — assistance, distance, performance, importance, allowance
-ence — difference, persistence, preference, innocence, intelligence
-ty/-ity — hostility, possibility, stability, activity, honesty
3.2. 1. a photographer; 2. friendship; 3. a driver; 4. persuasion; 5. violence; 6. a writer; 7. division; 8. an activity; 9. a visitor; 10. importance
3.3. 1. foundation; 2. information; 3. variety; 4. relationship; 5. definition; 6. responsibility; 7. difference
3.4. 1. manifestation; 2. accountability; 3. instruction; 4. graduation; 5. teachers; 6. assistance; 7. motivation; 8. persistence; 9. possibility; 10. decisions
4.1. 3751846
4.2. 1. sustain; 2. promote; 3. varies; 4. to satisfy; 5. respond; 6. cheering; 7. challenges; 8. adapt; 9. circumstances; 10. enhance
4.3. 3762154
4.4. 1. agility; 2. spectators; 3. awesome; 4. defeat; 5. roots; 6. shifted to; 7. recreation; 8. for a living; 9. demand; 10. critical/important